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The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp [print]

https://mhc.andornot.com/en/permalink/artifact11940
Dates
1798
1840
circa 1798-1840
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Archival Items
Classification
Archival, Images
Accession Number
002050008
Description
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plai…
Accession Number
002050008
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Archival Items
Classification
Archival, Images
MeSH Heading
Anatomy -- pictorial works
Description
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plain border; paper still flexible.
Number Of Parts
1
Provenance
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine.
Site Made (City)
Amsterdam
Site Made (Country)
Holland
Dates
1798
1840
circa 1798-1840
Material
paper: cream
ink: black
graphite: grey
Inscriptions
"Rembrandt van Ryn pinoc 1632 // T de Frey f: aquforti 1798 // DEMONSTRATION ANATOMIQUE, // faite par le celebre Medicine Nicolas Tulp. // Profesfeur d'anatomic a Amsterdam, l'An 1683 // le tableau original se trouve au Theatre // anatomique d'Amsterdam."; repeated in Dutch
Permanent Location
Storage Room 2005
2005-1-3 Box D
Length
44.0 cm
Width
36.0 cm
Unit Of Measure
centimeters
Condition Remarks
Heavily foxed and yellowed paper; missing minor piece on bottom edge and 1.5 cm tear at upper left edge
Copy Type
reproduction
Reference Types
Internet
Reference Comments
Zygmont, Bryon. “Rembrant, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.” Khan Academy. Accessed February 23, 2017. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/holland/a/rembrandt-the-anatomy-lesson-of-dr-tulp
Research Facts
The original portrait, painted by Dutch Baroque Rembrandt van Rijn in 1632, depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson. It was commissioned to hang in the board room of the Guild of Surgeons, a group that Tulp had become a reader of three years before. Tulp is shown as the only man wearing a hat, showing his elevated position over his pupil, as he demonstrates how arm muscles are attached to the body using forceps. He was known to give theory lessons twice a week in Amsterdam with one public autopsy a year being conducted. The painting shows the 1632 autopsy that used the body of a criminal, an executed thief named Adriaen het Kint as their cadaver. The surgeon in the centre towards the back holds a sheet of paper that lists the names of all the men in participating in the lesson, many of whom would have paid for the honor of being included in the composition.
Though it was one of Rembrandt’s earlier works, The Anatomy Lesson remains one of his most well-known paintings; the skill is evident in the expressive, recognizable faces of the surgeons and the dynamic contrast between light and dark. Rembrandt does, however, some artistic liberties, particularly as the surgeon would have begun with opening the chest cavity in an autopsy as opposed to beginning with an arm.
This was also one of the first painting that Rembrandt signed with his forename as opposed to RHL which he had used on previous ones, likely showing his increasing confidence in his artistic abilities.
Prev. # L42 / AMP344
Less detail
Dates
1955
1961
1955-1961
Collection
Dr. Hans Westenberg Collection
Category
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Classification
Cardiology
Accession Number
005007001
Description
A glass bowmeter (pulse measuring device); the device is a curved tube, sealed at each end; the tube is filled with an amber coloured liquid with a bubble in it; along the tube are a series of black and red dots (one red, four black, one red, four black, one red); there is a string tied on to the d…
  2 images  
Accession Number
005007001
Collection
Dr. Hans Westenberg Collection
Category
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Classification
Cardiology
MeSH Heading
Physical Examination
Cardiology -- instrumentation
MM= Pulse -- sphygmograph
Description
A glass bowmeter (pulse measuring device); the device is a curved tube, sealed at each end; the tube is filled with an amber coloured liquid with a bubble in it; along the tube are a series of black and red dots (one red, four black, one red, four black, one red); there is a string tied on to the device.
Number Of Parts
1
Provenance
The donor first used this device during his medical studies at the University of Amsterdam (Universiteit van Amsterdam) in the late 1950s where Prof. Borst was faculty chairman; the donor believes everyone who wished to gradate used one and every clinical clerk, intern, and resident would carry one of these in there pocket with the string tied to a button on their jacket; Dr. Westenberg brought this instrument with him when he came to Canada in 1961 and used it for a while, although he believes this measure may not have been widely used beyond Prof. Borst and his students in Amsterdam.
Maker
Probably custom made at the University of Amsterdam.
Site Made (City)
Amsterdam
Site Made (Country)
Netherlands
Dates
1955
1961
1955-1961
Date Remarks
The donor says these devices were used in the late 1950s, and he brought this one to Canada in 1961.
Material
glass: clear
liquid: amber
fabric: beige
Inscriptions
"WESTENBURG" hand printed on a piece of tape on the device
Permanent Location
Storage Room 0010
0010-E6-7
Dimension Notes
Length 14.2 cm x Diam 1.0 cm
Condition Remarks
Some minor surface wear; the piece of tape is deteriorated.
Copy Type
Original
Reference Types
Person
JPG
Reference Comments
Dr. Hans Westenburg; CD #1
Research Facts
The donor believes that Prof. Borst (best known for his low protein diet for people in acute renal failure) had these objects made up by one of his technicians; this devices was used to measure the height of a patient's jugular venous pressure; before the development of diuretics in the mid-1961s for patients suffering from renal failure, this instrument was a method of determining whether congestive heart failure was improving or deteriorating - an elevated jugular vein pulse could indicate a backup in the right atrium of the heart; one end was placed on the patient's sternal notch, about 5 cm above the right atrium in a person lying down - the other end would be placed on the highest point of the jugular vein in the anterior neck.
Images
Less detail
Dates
Nov. 21 1966
circa Nov. 21 1966
Collection
Dr. Michael A. Chiong Patent Medicine Collection
Category
Ephemera
Classification
Ephemera
Accession Number
996001853
Description
Paper envelope with two stamps from the International Hippocratic Foundation in Athens to a Dr. W.T. (?) Gardner; flap open.
  1 image  
Accession Number
996001853
Collection
Dr. Michael A. Chiong Patent Medicine Collection
Category
Ephemera
Classification
Ephemera
MeSH Heading
Numismatics -- ephemera
Correspondence, ephemera
MM= Commemorative and Association Items -- ephemera
Description
Paper envelope with two stamps from the International Hippocratic Foundation in Athens to a Dr. W.T. (?) Gardner; flap open.
Number Of Parts
1
Provenance
Purchased by Dr. Chiong for his patent medicine collection, before July 15, 1995.
Maker
Greece
Site Made (City)
Athens
Site Made (Country)
Greece
Dates
Nov. 21 1966
circa Nov. 21 1966
Date Remarks
Postmarked
Material
paper: green; white; blue; fuschia; grey
Inscriptions
"FOUNDATION HIPPOCRATIQUE INTERNATIONALE DE COS // RUE SCOUFA 77 - ATHENES // BY AIR MAIL // Mr. Dr. ["r" superscripted] W.T. [?] Gardner // 303 E 5th str. // Halstead, Kansas // U.S.A. ..."; etc
Permanent Location
Storage Room 2005
2005-2-2 Box #6
Dimension Notes
Length: 22.5 cm. x Width: 10.5 cm.
Condition Remarks
Mild age/sun discolouration; edges are worn and there are several creases
Copy Type
Original
Images
Less detail
Dates
1900
1920
circa 1900-1920
Collection
Parks Canada Agency Pharmacy Collection
Category
Pharmacy and Drug Artifacts
Classification
Pharmacy, General
Accession Number
014002004 a-c
Description
Rectangular clear glass bottle (a) of "Indian Oil" with original box (b) tapered at the neck with a tan cork stopper stuck in opening; full of yellow transparent liquid; red paper manufacturer’s label is affixed to one side of bottle; label has imagery of man with feathered headpiece holding arrows…
  5 images  
Accession Number
014002004 a-c
Collection
Parks Canada Agency Pharmacy Collection
Category
Pharmacy and Drug Artifacts
Classification
Pharmacy, General
MeSH Heading
Drugs, Non-Prescription
MM= Drug Packaging -- container -- bottle
Description
Rectangular clear glass bottle (a) of "Indian Oil" with original box (b) tapered at the neck with a tan cork stopper stuck in opening; full of yellow transparent liquid; red paper manufacturer’s label is affixed to one side of bottle; label has imagery of man with feathered headpiece holding arrows in a quiver and what appears to be a tomahawk; faded rectangular red cardboard box missing bottom includes folded paper packaging (c) with directions for use and patent law information.
Number Of Parts
3
Part Names
a – bottle – Size: Length 15.8 cm x Width 5.4 cm x Depth 2.7 cm
b – box – Size: Length 15.9 cm x Width 5.7 cm x Depth 3.1 cm
c – paper – Size (unfolded) Length 22.5 cm x Width 10.4 cm
Provenance
Transferred from the Parks Canada Agency, via Gail Cariou of the Curatorial and Collections Branch.
Maker
J. P. Lamb, Druggist
Site Made (City)
Athens
Site Made (State)
Ontario
Site Made (Country)
Canada
Dates
1900
1920
circa 1900-1920
Date Remarks
Provided by donor
Material
glass: clear
paper: red, brown
ink: black
cork: tan
Inscriptions
Printed on bottle label: "INDIAN // OIL // PRICE - 25 CENTS // J. P. LAMB, DRUGGIST // AGENT FOR THE DOMINION // ATHENS, ONT." Printed on packaging: "INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL // REMEDY // Contains No Alcohol, Cayenne // or Ammonia. // DOSE, SMALL - EFFECT, SURE // For full directions, see inside // Circular.”; on side of box: “INDIAN OIL // CURES // Headache // Toothache // Sore Throat // Neuralgia // Earache // Cramps // Pleurisy // Sprains // Bruises // Burns // Cuts // Frost Bites // Rheumatism // Lame Back // Chilblains // Corns // And Wounds // of // Every // Description “; on other side: “INDIAN OIL has no equal as a Horse Liniment for Scratches, // Cuts, Corks, Galls, Sprains, Bruises, and the many ailments and accidents // they are subject to. Keep a bottle in your stable and you will use no other."; printed on instructional paper: " No. 647 - The Proprietary or Patent Medicine Act"
Permanent Location
Storage Room 0010
0010-A2-9 Row A
Condition Remarks
Bottle label shows minor fading and wear along edges; part of the bottle's base is covered with a frayed red paper; brown substance covers the tan cork; bottom of bottle's interior holds a thick white filmy substance; bottle has a what appears to be an interior flaw or crack on back edge; box is faded and stained along bottom, missing bottom panel, shows wear all over with minor missing red paper along bottom edge; paper sheet is brittle and aged brown
Copy Type
Original
Research Facts
Imagery on bottle and packaging represents the manufacturer's depiction of an "Indian" person and may not correlate to an accurate historical representation of any Indigenous person.
Images
Less detail