University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plai…
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plain border; paper still flexible.
"Rembrandt van Ryn pinoc 1632 // T de Frey f: aquforti 1798 // DEMONSTRATION ANATOMIQUE, // faite par le celebre Medicine Nicolas Tulp. // Profesfeur d'anatomic a Amsterdam, l'An 1683 // le tableau original se trouve au Theatre // anatomique d'Amsterdam."; repeated in Dutch
Storage Room 2005
2005-1-3 Box D
Unit Of Measure
Heavily foxed and yellowed paper; missing minor piece on bottom edge and 1.5 cm tear at upper left edge
Zygmont, Bryon. “Rembrant, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.” Khan Academy. Accessed February 23, 2017. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/holland/a/rembrandt-the-anatomy-lesson-of-dr-tulp
The original portrait, painted by Dutch Baroque Rembrandt van Rijn in 1632, depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson. It was commissioned to hang in the board room of the Guild of Surgeons, a group that Tulp had become a reader of three years before. Tulp is shown as the only man wearing a hat, showing his elevated position over his pupil, as he demonstrates how arm muscles are attached to the body using forceps. He was known to give theory lessons twice a week in Amsterdam with one public autopsy a year being conducted. The painting shows the 1632 autopsy that used the body of a criminal, an executed thief named Adriaen het Kint as their cadaver. The surgeon in the centre towards the back holds a sheet of paper that lists the names of all the men in participating in the lesson, many of whom would have paid for the honor of being included in the composition.
Though it was one of Rembrandt’s earlier works, The Anatomy Lesson remains one of his most well-known paintings; the skill is evident in the expressive, recognizable faces of the surgeons and the dynamic contrast between light and dark. Rembrandt does, however, some artistic liberties, particularly as the surgeon would have begun with opening the chest cavity in an autopsy as opposed to beginning with an arm.
This was also one of the first painting that Rembrandt signed with his forename as opposed to RHL which he had used on previous ones, likely showing his increasing confidence in his artistic abilities.
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Rectangular mahogany case with blue velvet lining the interior (g) containing a 12-blade scarificator (c), clear glass bottle with stopper (f), cupping lamp (a,b), and two large cups (d, e). There is also a small round pad (h) with felt on one side and leather on the other with a small band of leat…
Rectangular mahogany case with blue velvet lining the interior (g) containing a 12-blade scarificator (c), clear glass bottle with stopper (f), cupping lamp (a,b), and two large cups (d, e). There is also a small round pad (h) with felt on one side and leather on the other with a small band of leather, presumably to place one's finger into.
Number Of Parts
a) cupping lamp ring - Length 3.5 X Width 2.5
b) cupping lamp - Length 8.0 X Width 2.4
c) scarificator - Length 6.0 X Width 5.0 X Depth 6.5
d) glass cup - Length 14.0 X Width 7.5 X Depth 8.0
e) glass cup - Length 15.0 X Width 8.0 X Depth 7.5
f) glass bottle with stopper - Length 8.0 X Diameter 3.8
g) case - Length 26.5 cm x Width 15.0 cm x Depth 10.5 cm
h) leather and felt pad - Length 4.0 X Width 3.0 X Depth 1.5
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine; donated by Dr. R. Howey of Owen Sound, Ont.; used by Dr. Allan Cameron, who practised in Owen Sound, Ont. from 1857 to 1912.
Dr. Francis Fox was the house surgeon to the Derbyshire General Dispensary, and in 1827, announced his invention of "glass leeches", a new form of cupping cup with a wide, curved neck and oval belly that hung downwards. This shape imitated the natural shape and manner of hanging of a leech, and so Fox named his invention after them. Fox announced his invention in The Lancet, a prominent medical journal, and in the years after his announcement, continued to provide the journal with updates on how much better the glass leeches performed than regular cups. They made it less likely for the patient to be burned in the process of cupping as the flame was kept farther away from the skin, and the glass leech only needed to be applied twice after scarification instead of the common three times. Fox claimed that his glass leeches could be easily removed by an attendant so that the operator need not even be present. The glass leech could draw on average 7 and 3/4 ounces of blood in 16 minutes.
W. B. Hilliard was established in 1834, in Glasgow, Scotland; there were four different business addresses until about 1920. In 1878, it became W. B. Hilliard & Sons when Hilliard brought his two sons on as partners. Joseph B. Hilliard owned an instrument case which was carried by Dr. Livingstone, the explorer.
Cupping was popular in the 19th century; heated cups would be applied to bring blood up to the surface of the skin; lamps, syringes and / or stop-cocks were often included in cupping sets to help create a vacuum using heat. Often, a piece of lint and/or paper was lit on fire and placed in the cup. In dry cupping, the cup would be applied first and the blood drawn using the scarificator after the blood was brought to the surface. In wet cupping, blood was drawn first with the scarificator and then the cup was applied, so that the blood was drawn out by the vacuum and pooled in the cup.