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The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp [print]

https://mhc.andornot.com/en/permalink/artifact11940
Dates
1798
1840
circa 1798-1840
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Archival Items
Classification
Archival, Images
Accession Number
002050008
Description
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plai…
Accession Number
002050008
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Archival Items
Classification
Archival, Images
MeSH Heading
Anatomy -- pictorial works
Description
Monotone reproduction print of a painting affixed to heavy paper; depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson on a cadaver; text on front in Dutch and French; appears to be removed from frame; embossed line around perimeter of print with wide plain border; paper still flexible.
Number Of Parts
1
Provenance
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine.
Site Made (City)
Amsterdam
Site Made (Country)
Holland
Dates
1798
1840
circa 1798-1840
Material
paper: cream
ink: black
graphite: grey
Inscriptions
"Rembrandt van Ryn pinoc 1632 // T de Frey f: aquforti 1798 // DEMONSTRATION ANATOMIQUE, // faite par le celebre Medicine Nicolas Tulp. // Profesfeur d'anatomic a Amsterdam, l'An 1683 // le tableau original se trouve au Theatre // anatomique d'Amsterdam."; repeated in Dutch
Permanent Location
Storage Room 2005
2005-1-3 Box D
Length
44.0 cm
Width
36.0 cm
Unit Of Measure
centimeters
Condition Remarks
Heavily foxed and yellowed paper; missing minor piece on bottom edge and 1.5 cm tear at upper left edge
Copy Type
reproduction
Reference Types
Internet
Reference Comments
Zygmont, Bryon. “Rembrant, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.” Khan Academy. Accessed February 23, 2017. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/monarchy-enlightenment/baroque-art1/holland/a/rembrandt-the-anatomy-lesson-of-dr-tulp
Research Facts
The original portrait, painted by Dutch Baroque Rembrandt van Rijn in 1632, depicts a group of seven surgeons looking on as physician Nicolaes Tulp leads an anatomy lesson. It was commissioned to hang in the board room of the Guild of Surgeons, a group that Tulp had become a reader of three years before. Tulp is shown as the only man wearing a hat, showing his elevated position over his pupil, as he demonstrates how arm muscles are attached to the body using forceps. He was known to give theory lessons twice a week in Amsterdam with one public autopsy a year being conducted. The painting shows the 1632 autopsy that used the body of a criminal, an executed thief named Adriaen het Kint as their cadaver. The surgeon in the centre towards the back holds a sheet of paper that lists the names of all the men in participating in the lesson, many of whom would have paid for the honor of being included in the composition.
Though it was one of Rembrandt’s earlier works, The Anatomy Lesson remains one of his most well-known paintings; the skill is evident in the expressive, recognizable faces of the surgeons and the dynamic contrast between light and dark. Rembrandt does, however, some artistic liberties, particularly as the surgeon would have begun with opening the chest cavity in an autopsy as opposed to beginning with an arm.
This was also one of the first painting that Rembrandt signed with his forename as opposed to RHL which he had used on previous ones, likely showing his increasing confidence in his artistic abilities.
Prev. # L42 / AMP344
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Fox's glass leech cupping set

https://mhc.andornot.com/en/permalink/artifact5498
Dates
1834
1878
circa 1827-1878
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Classification
Treatment, General
Patient Care
Treatment
Accession Number
1950.4.1 a-h
Description
Rectangular mahogany case with blue velvet lining the interior (g) containing a 12-blade scarificator (c), clear glass bottle with stopper (f), cupping lamp (a,b), and two large cups (d, e). There is also a small round pad (h) with felt on one side and leather on the other with a small band of leat…
  5 images  
Accession Number
1950.4.1 a-h
Collection
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Category
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Classification
Treatment, General
Patient Care
Treatment
MeSH Heading
Bloodletting -- instrumentation
MM= Cupping -- set
Description
Rectangular mahogany case with blue velvet lining the interior (g) containing a 12-blade scarificator (c), clear glass bottle with stopper (f), cupping lamp (a,b), and two large cups (d, e). There is also a small round pad (h) with felt on one side and leather on the other with a small band of leather, presumably to place one's finger into.
Number Of Parts
8
Part Names
a) cupping lamp ring - Length 3.5 X Width 2.5
b) cupping lamp - Length 8.0 X Width 2.4
c) scarificator - Length 6.0 X Width 5.0 X Depth 6.5
d) glass cup - Length 14.0 X Width 7.5 X Depth 8.0
e) glass cup - Length 15.0 X Width 8.0 X Depth 7.5
f) glass bottle with stopper - Length 8.0 X Diameter 3.8
g) case - Length 26.5 cm x Width 15.0 cm x Depth 10.5 cm
h) leather and felt pad - Length 4.0 X Width 3.0 X Depth 1.5
Provenance
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine; donated by Dr. R. Howey of Owen Sound, Ont.; used by Dr. Allan Cameron, who practised in Owen Sound, Ont. from 1857 to 1912.
Maker
W. B. Hilliard
Site Made (City)
Glasgow
Site Made (Country)
Scotland
Dates
1834
1878
circa 1827-1878
Date Remarks
Date based on the maker's mark -- W. B. Hilliard was established in 1834, and after 1878, W. B. Hilliard became W. B. Hilliard & Sons
Material
wood: brown
velvet: blue
glass: clear
metal: gold
fabric: beige
leather: brown
Inscriptions
On the scarificator (c): "W. B. Hilliard / Glasgow"
Permanent Location
Storage Room 0010
0010-D6-7
Unit Of Measure
centimeters
Condition Remarks
Minor scratches on case (g), velvet fading, lamp (a, b) slightly scratched, small crack in glass in (e), and the glass bottle (f) is a bit dirty
Copy Type
original
Reference Types
Book
Journal
Website
Reference Comments
"Bloodletting Instruments," Davis & Appel, pp. 26-8; "Lancet," 1827 (12), pp. 238-9
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/33102/33102-h/33102-h.htm#Page_48
The Lancet, vol. 10, iss. 257, pg 559-560, Aug. 02, 1828.
http://www.glasgowwestaddress.co.uk/1888_Book/Hilliard_W_B_&_Sons.htm
Research Facts
Dr. Francis Fox was the house surgeon to the Derbyshire General Dispensary, and in 1827, announced his invention of "glass leeches", a new form of cupping cup with a wide, curved neck and oval belly that hung downwards. This shape imitated the natural shape and manner of hanging of a leech, and so Fox named his invention after them. Fox announced his invention in The Lancet, a prominent medical journal, and in the years after his announcement, continued to provide the journal with updates on how much better the glass leeches performed than regular cups. They made it less likely for the patient to be burned in the process of cupping as the flame was kept farther away from the skin, and the glass leech only needed to be applied twice after scarification instead of the common three times. Fox claimed that his glass leeches could be easily removed by an attendant so that the operator need not even be present. The glass leech could draw on average 7 and 3/4 ounces of blood in 16 minutes.
W. B. Hilliard was established in 1834, in Glasgow, Scotland; there were four different business addresses until about 1920. In 1878, it became W. B. Hilliard & Sons when Hilliard brought his two sons on as partners. Joseph B. Hilliard owned an instrument case which was carried by Dr. Livingstone, the explorer.
Cupping was popular in the 19th century; heated cups would be applied to bring blood up to the surface of the skin; lamps, syringes and / or stop-cocks were often included in cupping sets to help create a vacuum using heat. Often, a piece of lint and/or paper was lit on fire and placed in the cup. In dry cupping, the cup would be applied first and the blood drawn using the scarificator after the blood was brought to the surface. In wet cupping, blood was drawn first with the scarificator and then the cup was applied, so that the blood was drawn out by the vacuum and pooled in the cup.
Images
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