On inside of mask, stamped twice: "THE RESPIRATOR // PATENT // JULIUS JEFFREYS // London Depôt // 148 Regent St E"
Storage Room 0010
Julius Jeffreys (1800–1877) was a British surgeon and writer, was the inventor of the respirator, and was a pioneer in the development of early air conditioning systems.
On his arrival in England in 1835, Julius was distressed to find his now-widowed sister, Harriett, suffering from tuberculosis, and he was shocked by the general prevalence of lung diseases in England. In a time before there were medications to treat these ailments, mortality data from the period shows that, except during epidemics, the most common cause of death was lung afflictions.
Julius invented a mask, which he called a "Respirator". The mask worked by capturing moisture and warmth in exhaled air in a grid of fine metal wires. Inhaled air then was warmed and moistened as it passed through the same metal grid, providing relief to sufferers of lung diseases. The invention was patented and received patent number 10287, in 1836. The Respirator became very popular, and was mentioned in the literature of the day, including in the writings of Elizabeth Gaskell, William Makepeace Thackeray and Charles Dickens.
Despite the popularity of the Respirator, opposition came from some in the medical profession since it was sold through pharmacies and did not require a prescription.
Patent for "improvements in curing or relieving disorders of the lungs" by means of an "apparatus [that] will [enable the wearer to] constantly breath warm air". Specification of Julius Jeffreys design upgrade, 1857.
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Pharmacy and Drug Artifacts
Rectangular mahogony wooden chest (v) with brass handle contains medicines in bottles: (a) bottle without a top; (b-d) measurement bottles with stoppers; (e-g) bottles with stoppers; (h) bottle with a broken neck; (i-j) measurement bottles without stoppers; (k-m) measurement bottles, small size, wi…
Rectangular mahogony wooden chest (v) with brass handle contains medicines in bottles: (a) bottle without a top; (b-d) measurement bottles with stoppers; (e-g) bottles with stoppers; (h) bottle with a broken neck; (i-j) measurement bottles without stoppers; (k-m) measurement bottles, small size, without stoppers; (n) pestle; (o) graduated beaker; (p-q) jars with metal tops; (r) wooden tray with compartments; (s) drawer; (t) 5-grain weight; (u) 1/2-scruple weight; handle fits into a handle-shaped depression in a brass plate that is screwed to the top of the chest; both lengthwise face of chest is a drop-down panel connected to main body of chest by hinges at bottom; panels when fully extended create space to put bottles and implements; each panel has a lock mechanism; custom seven compartments hold bottles upright over drawer that can be opened from either side; tray dividers lift out; some bottles with minor amounts of contents.
Number Of Parts
a - bottle
b-d - bottle
e-j - bottle
k-m - bottle
n - pestle
o - beaker
p-q - jar
r - tray
s - tray
t - weight
u - weight
v - case
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine; source unknown.
Impressed on ledge of drawer, "Springweiler & Co. MAKERS, LONDON"; on bottles: "a) Sodae Bi-Carb; b) Spt. Camph; c) Spt. Aether Nit; d) Pulv. Jalap; e) Pulv. Ipecac; f) Tr. Acuniti P. B.; g) Pulv. Rhei; h) Tr.Hyosci; i) Quin. Sulph.; j) Pulv. crethes opium; k) Podophyllin; l) Hyd. w Cleta; m) Antim. Tart
Storage Room 0010
Unit Of Measure
a - bottle - Length 10.4 cm x Width 3.2 cm x Depth 4.7 cm
b-d - bottle - Length 11.1 cm x Width 3.7 cm x Depth 4.4 cm
e-j - bottle - Length 11.0 cm x Width 2.5 cm x Depth 3.0 cm
k-m - bottle - Length 4.7 cm x Width 2.2 cm x Depth 3.5 cm
n - pestle - Length 6.3 cm
o - beaker - Length 6.3 cm x Diam. 3.3 cm
p-q - jar - Length 3.9 cm x Diam. 2.7 cm
r - tray - Length 14.9 cm x Width 7.5 cm x Depth 2.1 cm
s - tray - Length 21.2 cm x Width 9.5 cm x Depth 7.0 cm
t - weight
u - weight
v - case - Length 23.5 cm x Width 11.7 cm x Depth 22.2 cm
Several bottles are broken; velvet lining in some of the compartments and drawers are torn and worn; glass stoppers are stuck in a number of the bottles; no bottle in the drawer marked "calomel"; manufacturers' name on label inside front door has been obliterated; #3: minor nicks and scratches in surface of wooden case; inlay missing from keyhole; tope handle had signs of use but no corrosion; both doors open easily (need to be tied to stay shut); front inner door has remnants of a green paper label, worn, torn, but firmly affixed; two bottles missing from one side; bottle (h) broken, with the neck missing entirely; there was a chip in the bottom of bottle (g) and contents were exposed, 0.5 cm in diameter, and the label was torn; there is a crack in the neck of (i); there is a chip in the lip of (j), 3.6 cm x 0.7 cm; the handles of the lower tray were worn, but no corrosion; there was a crack along the bottom edge of one side of the tray, 6.2 cm long; the inner velvet lining was worn; there was no corrosion on the scale weights, or lower jar lids; one lower bottle (calomel) was missing; one label had fallen off some object and was at the bottom of the tray; no chips or cracks in the measuring glass; lid of bottle (p) very loose; stopper of (r) loose.
On display in the "When Medicine Met Science" exhibit, Ann Baillie Building, April 29, 2003