On front of cardboard packaging: "AMBRINE // THE FIRST AND ONLY WAX DRESSING // ORIGINATED, DEVELOPED AND SUCCESSFULLY // USED BY // DOCTEUR BARTHE OF SANDFORT // A PROTECTIVE DRESSING // ASEPTIC // NON-ADHESIVE // NON-IRRITATING // PLIABLE AND PLASTIC // FOR // BURNS OF ANY CAUSE"; elsewhere on the packaging: "A COMBINATION OF PARAFFINS AND RESINOUS GUMS"; "AMBRINE IS USED BY THE FIGHTING FORCES OF THE ALLIES"
Storage Room 0010
On-site exhibit: "Trench Menders: Health Care in the First World War," 25 Feb, 2015.
Length 19.0 cm x Width 12.7 cm x Depth 2.7 cm
#1: Cardboard packaging ripped and stained by oil from the wax; #3: the package is torn.
Bundy, Elizabeth Roxana. Surgical Nursing in War. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1917.; Churchill, Mary Smith. You Who Can Help. Boston: Small, Maynard and Company, 1918.; Hull, A. J. "The Treatment Of Burns By Paraffin." British Medical Journal 1.2924 (1917): 37-38.; Keen, William W. The Treatment of War Wounds. Philadelphia and London: W.B. Saunders Company, 1917.; Stuart-Nairne, Margaret. “Inventions I Have Seen During the War.” The British Journal of Nursing. 62 (1919): 329; CD #UHN
Ambrine is a paraffin wax mixture developed by Doctor Barthe de Sandfort of France to treat burns. Though developed more than a decade earlier, its use was popularized during World War I due to the increase in burn patients as compared to previous wars. It was also used to treat other instances of deep tissue damage such as frostbite or trench foot.
Application involved several steps. First, the burn is sterilized by being washed with one or a combination of sterile water, hydrogen peroxide, ether, or boric acid. Then the burn needs to be dried completely before the mixture can be applied, which can be accomplished by fanning or by laying a piece of gauze over the wound. A thin coating of melted ambrine is then applied to the site either using a soft-bristled brush or an atomizer. This is covered with a thin layer of cotton wool cut to the size of the burn. Another layer of ambrine is applied on top of this, and once it hardens a bandage is applied to hold the dressing in place. Burns would be dressed daily, or every second day later in treatment.
Ambrine was popular due to the rapidity with which burns healed, the reduced need for skin grafting, the lack of infection due to the air-tight dressing and reduced scarring.
Hinged wooden rectangular surgical case with brass banding along edges and across top of lid (a) with lift out drawer (b) both lined with purple velvet and two removable covers (c,d); contains two Liston (e,g) and one Catling (f) amputating knives of varying sizes; set of minor operating knives (h…
Hinged wooden rectangular surgical case with brass banding along edges and across top of lid (a) with lift out drawer (b) both lined with purple velvet and two removable covers (c,d); contains two Liston (e,g) and one Catling (f) amputating knives of varying sizes; set of minor operating knives (h-k) along with two other scalpels (l,m); clear plastic spool of braided silk and another spool with no thread (n,o); curved surgical needles of varying sizes (p-r) and two hooked needles of different sizes (s,t); a needle holder (u); hand saw (v) with narrow (w) and wide (x) saw blades; hey saw (y); steel trephine handle (z); steel trephine (aa); black brush (bb); narrow retractor all metal one piece (cc); angled surgical scalpel (dd); curved director / dilator (ee); there are pieces missing; knives and scalpels with incised cross-hatched ebony handles.
Number Of Parts
a - wood case
b - lift out drawer
c - large removable cover
d - removable cover
e - surgical knife Liston 8 3/4”
f - surgical bistory Catling 7”
g - surgical knife Liston 6”
h - short surgical scalpel
i - short surgical scalpel J. J. TEUFEL
j - short surgical scalpel
k - short surgical scalpel
l - short surgical scalpel with worn handle
m - scalpel metal one piece
n - spool of braided silk
o - spool
p - curved surgical needle
q - curved surgical needle
r - curved surgical needle
s - hooked surgical needle
t - hooked surgical needle
u - needle holder
v - hand saw
w - narrow saw blade
x - wide saw blade
y - hey saw
z - trephine handle
aa - trephine
bb - brush
cc - narrow retractor all metal one piece
dd - angled surgical scalpel
ee - curved director/ dilator
Originally owned by Dr. Peter William Reid (Reed) of Madoc, Ontario. Donated by great grandson.
Stamped on neck of (e- f): "KUHLMANN"; (g-h): "A. KUHLMANN"; (i): "J. J. TEUFEL"; (j-l): "A. KUHLMANN"; (m); "GERMANY"; (u): "TIEMANN & CO"; (z): "H. McC. & D. // CHICAGO"; (dd): "CTRUAX & CO"
Storage Room 0010
For u, z-aa only: On exhibit “The Century: Medical Innovations of the 1800s” at Museum of Health Care, 25 June 2017.
a - 41.0
b - 38.5
c - 38.6
d - 5.2
e - 36.1
f - 35.4
g - 28.5
h - 16.3
i - 16.5
j - 16.5
k - 15.6
l - 16.2
m - 16.8
n - 2.4
o - 2.5
p - 7.5
q - 5.0
r - 4.2
s - 5.4
t - 4.1
u - 11.5
v - 36.5
w - 26.2
x - 26.2
y - 17.3
z - 9.7cm
aa - 10.5
bb - 9.6
cc - 13.3
dd - 20.2
ee - 24.6
a - 16.5
b - 13.8
c - 13.9
d - 3.9
e - 1.9
f - 1.9
g - 1.9
h - 1.7
i - 1.7
j - 1.2
k - 1.6
l - 1.2
m - 0.9
p - 0.1
q - 0.1
r - 0.1
t - 0.1
u - 2.0
v - 9.9
w - 1.1
x - 2.0
y - 4.8
z - 1.9
aa - 1.9
bb - 1.8
cc - 1.0
dd - 0.9
ee - 0.5
a - 8.7
b - 2.2
c - 0.5
d - 0.4
e - 1.4
f - 1.9
g - 1.8
h - 0.6
i - 0.6
j - 0.6
k - 0.6
l - 0.6
m - 0.4
p - 0.1
q - 0.1
r - 0.1
s - 0.1
t - 0.1
u - 1.0
v - 2.2
w - 0.1
x - 0.1
y - 1.0
z - 2.0
aa - 1.9
bb - 0.9
cc - 0.5
dd - 0.6
ee - 0.5
n - 1.4
o - 1.3
Unit Of Measure
Minor lifting of double decorative brass wire; discolourization of velvet to a light brown; lid warped does not fully close
Dr. William Standish Reed.
Civil War issue U. S. Army Hospital Department set by Geo. Tiemann. American Civil War Surgical Antiques.
Dr. Peter William Reid (1827 - 1898) was born in Stirling Ontario and was an Empire Loyalist. Dr. Reid moved to the United States and due to a clerical error the spelling of his last name was changed to Reed.
The layout and instruments would indicate use as a field set as opposed to hospital use. Field sets are not as extensive as hospital sets and would have been used for initial treatment of war wounds as well as for treatment of day-to-day surgical problems.
The case has indentations for approximately 37 tools, but there is only 19 remaining instruments that fit into their designated areas. Three instruments do not appear to have designated spots within the case.
Many pieces missing; top of case is cracked; #2: cracks in case and knives; #3: box re-checked
(b,aa,ab) See Evans and Wormall catalogue, 1876, Plate 11, fig. 52; (e) same catalogue, Plate 10, fig. 29; (h) same catalogue, Plate 10, fig. 41; (l, m) same catalogue, Plate 10, fig. 27; (o) see Down Bros. catalogue, 1901, p. 555. fig. 2773; (p,r) See Evans and Wormall catalogue, 1876, Plate 13, fig. 68; (s) see H.J. Milburn & Co. catalogue, ca 1893, p. 144, fig. 1983; (t,u,v) see Downs Bros. catalogue, 1901, p. 526, fig. 2633; (w,x) see Evans and Wormall catalogue, 1876, Plate 46, fig. 449; CD #UHN
When purchased, the case was full and was supposed to contain all the instruments a surgeon would need in his practice at that time. Note that the letter "a" was not used in identifying the parts, and (f), (g), (i), (j), and (k) are missing.
University Health Network - Academy of Medicine Collection
Diagnostic & Treatment Artifacts
Wooden surgical case (a) lined with velvet and containing (b,c,d) Liston's amputation knives, three different sizes, each with a black wooden handle; (e) broad elevator with a wooden handle for trepanning and necrosis; (f) octagonal wooden handle that fits onto (g) a brass and steel trephine; (h) L…
Wooden surgical case (a) lined with velvet and containing (b,c,d) Liston's amputation knives, three different sizes, each with a black wooden handle; (e) broad elevator with a wooden handle for trepanning and necrosis; (f) octagonal wooden handle that fits onto (g) a brass and steel trephine; (h) Liston's artery forceps with clasp and curved interlocking tips; (i) bullet forceps with scooped tips; (j) straight hemorrhoid forceps with fixing slide; (k,l) scalpels each with a wooden handle; (m) tenaculum in wooden handle; (n) scalpel with wooden handle; (o) glass spool with white silk for suturing; (p) metal key for lock; (q,r) Petit's spiral screw tourniquet made of metal, cloth, and leather; (s) amputating saw with a carved wooden handle; miscellaneous items not numbered: one half-circle, round-eye Hagedorn suture needle, two quarter-circle, plain eye suture needles; one straight, plain eye suture needle; one roll of sutures, possibly catgut.
Number Of Parts
a -case - Size: Length 35.7 cm x Width 20.8 cm
b - amputation knife - Size: Length 33.0 cm
c - amputation knife - Size: Length 27.0 cm
d - amputation knife - Size: Length 17.9 cm
e - elevator - Size: Length 17.5 cm
f - handle - Size: Length 9.2 cm
g - trephine - Size: Length 11.1 cm
h - artery forceps - Size: Length 12.7 cm
i - bullet forceps - Size: Length 18.1 cm
j - hemorrhoid forceps - Size: Length 13.3 cm
k - scalpel - Size: Length 15.2 cm
l - scalpel - Size: Length 16.0 cm
m - tenaculum - Size: Length 12.0 cm
n - scalpel - Size: Length 16.5 cm
o - glass spool - Size: Length 2.5 cm
p - key - Size: Length 3.5 cm
q - screw tourniquet - Size: Length 8.0 cm
r - screw tourniquet - Size: Length 8.0 cm
s - amputating saw - Size: Length 33.0 cm
Acquired from the Academy of Medicine; donated by Dr. Frederick LeMaitre Grasett; owned and used by Dr. G. R. Grasett, and before him by his father. Field set belonging to Dr. Henry Grasett, surgeon-in-chief to forces during the War of 1812.
2013: conserved & repaired; Lid broken off box; several large cracks; bullet forceps' scooped tips do not come together completely when closed; #2: three additional cracks; velvet on the inside of the lid was worn; one clasp missing; bottom of the case has a crack running down the centre of its length; the arm of the proper left clasp was broken; there is a minor crack in the handle of (b); all other pieces show signs of moderate wear; (i) and (j) heavily worn; no signs of active corrosion on the metal pieces; fishing line had been used to secure both tourniquet straps; the bottom of the case was scratched and the corner joins were stressed; a splinter had come apart from the front proper right corner of the case, 5 cm long.
Case lid is broken off near the hinge. The corner joints at the hinged edge are slightly separated. Case lid and bottom have cracks across the length of the case. PL front latch arm is broken and hook is lost. The exterior of the case is scratched and the bottom has small losses and a white-ish material rubbed into the wood. Metal components are slightly tarnished. Velvet lining is abraded, matted, and dirty. Fabric has peeled away from wood in some areas and some dividers inside the case are loose.
Queen's University Art Conservation Program, 4 Sept. 2012-15 Feb. 2013: L-2012-5. On loan to Historic Fort York, City of Toronto, Culture Division, Museums and Heritage Services, 24/10/2003-24/10/2005: L-2003.2; On exhibit in "Friendly Fire 1812," Agnes Etherington Art Centre, 27 Feb. 2012 - 7 Sept. 2012: L-20120-2..
Portable blood transfusion apparatus housed in upright brown varnished wood box (a) with hinged front lid and two metal latches on left opening side and brass key lock, key missing; interior with portion of top of box hinged to open for access to removable upper shelf (c) and pull out wood drawer (…
Portable blood transfusion apparatus housed in upright brown varnished wood box (a) with hinged front lid and two metal latches on left opening side and brass key lock, key missing; interior with portion of top of box hinged to open for access to removable upper shelf (c) and pull out wood drawer (b) on bottom; two clear hand blown glass bottles (e-f), one with graduated measurements from 20 to 1100 cc in 20 cc gradations and the other without markings are held in place by a removable shaped wood piece (d) with a metal snap latch to join this piece to the built in wood shelf; bottles with wedge shaped red rubber plugs with a pair of glass rods descending into the bottle interior, with multiple and long red rubber tubes attached to glass rods on top of plugs; apparatus (g) of rubber tubes with a series of three metal clamps, two glass cylinders one filled with white cotton batting and one ‘T’ shaped glass connector rod all leading to a pair of long glass rods in ‘U’ shape attached to hinged door with wood toggles have bulbous tops and one bulb is open, placed in front of a pale yellow printed measurement guide with gradation from the center number “0” at the middle and measurements decreasing below and above by 20 ending in ‘30’ at both ends; several wood parts have hand written numbers while the bottle holder has a stamped number; bottles with minor bubbles in glass with etched interior of neck; silver stainless steel needle (h) with removable screw off top and similar style of trocar (i) with removable sections to change size of trocar stored inside.
Number Of Parts
a – case: 46.4 cm Height x 28.3 cm Width x 21.3 cm Depth
b – drawer: 26.3 cm Length x 28.3 cm Width x 21.3 cm Depth
c – shelf: 26.3 cm Length x 15.9 cm Height x 0.6 cm Depth
d – bottle holder: 26.3 cm Length x 5.6 cm Width x 1.0 cm Depth
e – f -bottle: 26.3 cm Height x 5.6 cm Diam
g – rubber apparatus
h - needle: 12.4 cm Length x 3.3 cm Width x 0.8 cm Depth
I - trocar: 11.8 cm Length x 3.5 cm Width x 1.0 cm Depth
Collected by Dr. Fransman, donor's father.
Stamped on trocar: "HOLBONDS // LONDON"; on latch of bottle holder: "BRITISH // PAT NO // 165333 // MADE"
Storage Room 0007
Unit Of Measure
Beginning with William Harvey's experiments on the circulation of blood, research into blood transfusion began in the 17th century, with successful experiments in transfusion between animals. However, successive attempts by physicians to transfuse animal blood into humans gave variable, often fatal, results.
James Blundell in london, UK, successfully transfused human blood in 1818. The largest series of early successful transfusions took place at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary between 1885 and 1892. Edinburgh later became the home of the first blood donation and blood transfusion services. It was not until 1901, when the Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered three human blood groups (O, A, and B), that blood transfusion was put onto a scientific basis and became safer.
The First World War acted as a catalyst for the rapid development of blood banks and transfusion techniques. Canadian doctor and Lieutenant Lawrence Bruce Robertson was instrumental in persuading the Royal Army Medical Corps to adopt the use of blood transfusion at the Casualty Clearing Stations for the wounded. In October 1915, Robertson performed his first wartime transfusion with a syringe to a patient suffering from multiple shrapnel wounds. He followed this up with four subsequent transfusions in the following months.
Dr. Fransman graduated from medical school in 1940 and lived in Amsterdam. Worked in Holland, England during WWII. Came to Kingston General Hosptial, Ontario in 1951 as a chest specialist and managed the TB clinincs. Radiologist specialist in 1960 and managed the x-ray department at Kingston General Hosptial, retiring in 1983. Post-retirement he worked at the Collins Bay prison, Kingston Psychiatric Hopsital, Ongwanada and St. Mary's of the Lake, retiring again in 1996.
On loan L-2018-6 Canadian War Musuem for exhibit 'Last 100 Days of the First World War' 17 May 2018 - 20 April 2019